# Electromechanical Technician Program Outline

The Electromechanical Technician Certificate program provides a complete introduction to electronics and electromechanical systems. This program is often of interest to people who want to study electronics with an emphasis on mechanical systems, for example someone coming from a millwright background. The program covers mechanical topics outside of a typical electronics program, like industrial control devices, DC and AC motors and control circuits, transformers, analog and digital transducers, industrial process control and PLCs.

Similar to the Electronics program, the Electromechanical program integrates the CircuitLogix and 3DLab simulators for laboratory exercises.

## Electromechanical Courses Outline Description

The Electromechanical Technician Certificate, allows the student to work and complete the computer based program at their own pace. The Electromechanical Technician program is divided into 24 modules and similar to the Electronics Technician Certificate program, contains text, animations, mini audio lectures, illustrations, review questions, over 450 pre-built lab projects and practice exams. Six modules extend its coverage into mechanical systems.

This module is designed to introduce the student to the fundamental concepts of electronics and describe some basic applications. This module covers units of measure, scientific notation, SI system, and engineering notation. The principles of molecules and atomic structure are also presented in this module as well as an introduction to electric charges.

**Learning Outcomes:**

Upon completion of this module the student will be able to:

- Describe the historical perspective of electricity and electronics.
- Describe some of the important areas where electronics technology is applied.
- List examples of common electronic components.
- Define the basic units of measurement.
- Describe the SI system of measurement.
- Be able to express numbers in scientific notation.
- Convert from one power of 10 to another.
- Define engineering notation.
- Describe basic atomic structure.
- Explain the principle of electric charge.
- Express Coulomb's law.

This module introduces students to the fundamentals of current, voltage and resistance. In addition, the module introduces essential concepts such as the relationship between temperature and resistance, electron velocity, and the direction of current flow. The module also covers wire sizes, the resistor color code, and troubleshooting resistors.

**Learning Outcomes:**

Upon completion of this module the student will be able to:

- Define electric current.
- Describe electron flow and conventional flow.
- Discuss electric potential and voltage.
- List the five main types of voltage sources.
- Differentiate between a voltage source and a current source.
- Explain the difference between a dependent source and independent source.
- Define resistance.
- Describe the relationship between temperature and resistance.
- List various types of resistors.
- Utilize the resistor color code.

This module is designed to cover the fundamentals of Ohm's law, work, energy and power. A discussion of power dissipation and rating of circuit components is presented, as well as efficiency, the kilowatt hour. The theoretical and practical aspects of basic circuit calculations are also presented in this module using a combination of video, animation, and a laboratory projects using Electronics Workbench.

**Learning Outcomes:**

Upon completion of this module the student will be able to:

- Define Ohm's law.
- Utilize Ohm's law to determine current, voltage, or resistance.
- Describe the linear relationship between current and voltage.
- Differentiate between work and energy.
- Define power.
- Determine the efficiency of an electrical device.
- Calculate power consumption in terms of kilowatt hours.

This module covers resistance, current, and voltage in a series circuit, and presents an introduction to the polarity of voltages, voltage dividers, and the concept of internal resistance. The student will learn to apply Kirchhoff's voltage law to solve problems and design voltage dividers. Fuses and switches are also presented with an emphasis on practical applications and troubleshooting.

**Learning Outcomes:**

Upon completion of this module the student will be able to:

- Describe how voltages are distributed around a series circuit.
- Explain the purpose of double subscript notation.
- Define Kirchhoff's voltage law.
- Express the voltage divider rule and determine where it can be applied.
- Determine the polarity of EMFS and voltage drops.
- Explain the meaning of positive ground and negative ground.
- Calculate power in a series circuit.
- Define internal resistance. Explain the purpose of fuses and switches.
- Troubleshoot open circuit and short circuit conditions in a series circuit.

This module will provide the student with an introduction to voltage in parallel circuits and the application of Ohm's law to these circuit configurations. The module is designed to demonstrate the effect of current, voltage, and resistance in parallel circuits and describe how Kirchhoff's current law can be applied to problem solving and troubleshooting techniques.

**Learning Outcomes:**

Upon completion of this module the student will be able to:

- Define a parallel circuit.
- Calculate resistance in parallel.
- Describe the flow of current in a parallel circuit.
- Express Kirchhoff's current law.
- Use the current divider rule.
- Apply Ohm's law for parallel circuit calculations.
- Calculate power in a parallel circuit.
- Describe the effect of connecting voltage sources in parallel.
- List some typical applications for parallel circuits.
- Troubleshoot parallel circuits.

This module covers resistance, current, and voltage in series parallel circuits. The student will learn to apply Ohm's law to solving for specific quantities in these circuit configurations. The module also covers power, loaded voltage dividers and the Wheatstone Bridge as well as troubleshooting applications and problem solving.

**Learning Outcomes:**

Upon completion of this module the student will be able to:

- Define a series parallel circuit.
- Determine the total resistance in a series parallel circuit.
- Apply Kirchhoff's current and voltage law to a series parallel circuit.
- Calculate voltage drops and power.
- Recognize the various configurations of series parallel networks.
- Explain the purpose of loaded voltage dividers.
- List some applications of series parallel circuits.
- Describe the effects of open and short circuits on series parallel resistor networks.
- Determine the total voltage of series parallel voltage sources.

This module includes the study of both analogue and digital dc measuring instruments including ammeters, voltmeters, and ohmmeters. Voltmeter loading and sensitivity are presented with an emphasis on practical applications and safe operation of these instruments. This module also covers multimeters, electronic meters, and an introduction to digital measuring instruments.

**Learning Outcomes:**

Upon completion of this module the student will be able to:

- Explain the necessity of a shunt resistor in a dc ammeter circuit.
- Describe the effects of ammeter and voltmeter loading.
- Explain the basic operation of a multi range ammeter.
- Discuss the purpose of a multiplier resistor in a dc voltmeter.
- Define voltmeter sensitivity.
- Describe the operating characteristics of the dc wattmeter.
- Describe the operation of the ohmmeter.
- Discuss the basic principles of electronic and digital multimeters.

Industrial Control Devices provides an overview of devices such as switches, actuators and relays and their industrial applications. The student will learn troubleshooting techniques and the principles of relay and ladder logic. This module also covers solenoids and control valves with an emphasis on practical applications.

**Learning Outcomes:**

Upon completion of this module the student will be able to:

- Define inductive arcing and explain how it can be prevented.
- Name three types of mechanical switches.
- Describe the basic operating principle of a control relay.
- Explain the purpose of overload relays.
- Define the term holding contract and its application in control circuits.
- Explain the difference between a control relay and a solenoid.
- List three applications of rotary actuators.
- Name three types of time-delay relays.

## 9. Magnetism

This module provides an introduction to magnetism including the nature of magnetism, magnetic fields, and magnetic materials. Electromagnets and permanent magnets are also presented using a combination of video and animation allowing the student to gain a better understanding of magnetic field theory. The Hall effect sensor is also introduced in this module.

**Learning Outcomes:**

Upon completion of this module the student will be able to:

- Explain Weber's theory.
- Define the term domain.
- Describe the principle of the magnetic field.
- List four characteristics of magnetic lines of force.
- List the three laws of magnetic attraction and repulsion.
- Name the three classifications of magnetic materials.
- Describe the field around a current carrying conductor.
- Define the right hand rule.
- List the three factors affecting the strength of an electromagnetic field.
- Explain how magnetic fields are used to store audio and video signals.
- Name two types of permanent magnets.
- Describe the Hall Effect.

This module will focus on the principles of DC motors and the various types used in industry. The student will learn the fundamentals of speed control including dynamic and regenerative braking. Servo-, Stepper- and Brushless DC motors are discussed as well as basic dynamo configurations. This module also introduces the student to electronic speed control of DC motors.

**Learning Outcomes:**

Upon completion of this module the student will be able to:

- Explain the purpose of a commutator in DC motors.
- Differentiate between a stator and an armature.
- Describe the basic components of a dynamo.
- Define torque and counter EMF.
- Name three typical dynamo configurations.
- List two types of compound motors.
- Explain the basic operating principle of servomotors.
- Describe what is meant by overshoot and damping in motor circuits.
- List three applications for stepper motors.
- Name two advantages of using brushless DC (BLDC) motors.
- Explain how pulse-width modulation is applied to DC motor speed control.
- Define the terms dynamic and regenerative braking.
- Describe the principles of operation of a DC drive

This module introduces the student to the fundamentals of alternating voltages and currents. In addition to sine waves, the module also covers non sinusoidal waveforms and harmonic frequencies. The principles of frequency, period, and wavelength are presented emphasizing practical applications and troubleshooting techniques. Theoretical areas of study include instantaneous, RMS and average values of sine waves.

**Learning Outcomes:**

Upon completion of this module the student will be able to:

- Identify sine waves.
- Explain the instantaneous value of a sine wave.
- Convert radians to electrical degrees and vice versa.
- Define frequency, period and wavelength.
- Determine the average and RMS values of a sine wave.
- Explain the phase relationships between alternating current and voltage.
- Differentiate between a sinusoidal wave and a non sinusoidal wave.
- Name three types of non sinusoidal waves.
- Define harmonics.

This module includes the study of both analogue and digital AC measuring instruments including ammeters, voltmeters and ohmmeters. Oscilloscopes, signal generators, and frequency counters are presented with an emphasis on practical applications and safe operation of these instruments. This module is designed to reinforce troubleshooting techniques using AC meters.

**Learning Outcomes**:

Upon completion of this module the student will be able to:

- Name two methods of frequency measurement.
- Describe the basic operating characteristics of an oscilloscope.
- Determine voltage and frequency values from oscilloscope displays.
- List two applications of signal generators.
- Define a function generator.
- Define harmonics.

This module covers the principles of capacitance including relative permittivity, dielectric strength and leakage current. The types of capacitors covered in this module include electrolytic, ceramic, mylar and tantalum. Series and parallel configurations of capacitor circuits are included in the module as well as an introduction to bypass and coupling capacitors.

**Learning Outcomes:**

Upon completion of this module the student will be able to:

- Describe the electrostatic field between two charged surfaces.
- Determine the flux density of a capacitor.
- Define relative permittivity and dielectric strength.
- Express the capacitance of a device in terms of charge and potential difference.
- List three factors that determine the capacitance of a capacitor.
- Define the terms leakage current and leakage resistance.
- Describe various types of capacitors used in electronic circuits.
- Utilize the capacitor color code.
- Explain transients in RC circuits.
- Describe the universal time constant curve.
- Discuss the relationship between capacitors connected in series and in parallel.
- Define coupling capacitors and bypass capacitors.
- Troubleshoot capacitors.

This module introduces the student to electromagnetic induction, Faraday's law and Lenz's law. Various types of inductors are described and the student will learn to calculate the values of transients in RL circuits. This module also covers inductors in series and parallel, and the effect on current, voltage and inductive reactance in these circuits.

**Learning Outcomes:**

Upon completion of this module the student will be able to:

- Describe the principle of electromagnetic induction and flux linkages.
- List the four basic factors that determine the magnitude of an induced EMF.
- Explain Lenz's law and the principle of counter EMF.
- Define self inductance and mutual inductance.
- List various types of inductors used in electrical and electronic circuits.
- Discuss the differences between inductors connected in series and in parallel.
- Explain inductive time constants and transients in RL circuits.
- Discuss energy stored in a magnetic field.
- Troubleshoot inductors.

## 15. Transformers

This module is designed to present an overview of transformers and their applications in electronic circuits. Module work will be primarily based on transformer principles, design considerations and reinforcement of key concepts such as reflected load and maximum power transfer. Transformer types such as pulse, center tap, multiple winding and auto transformers are also discussed.

**Learning Outcomes:**

Upon completion of this module the student will be able to:

- Explain the basic operating principles of the transformer.
- Draw the schematic symbols for iron and air core transformers.
- Explain the standard markings used to identify transformer windings.
- Discuss the principles of reflected loads and impedance matching.
- List the various losses associated with transformers.
- Express the significance of transformer polarity.
- Differentiate between isolation transformers and auto transformers.
- Troubleshoot transformers.

This module introduces the student to the fundamentals of AC motors and AC variable speed control systems. In addition to the basic introduction motor, the module also covers servo-, universal and synchronous motors. Areas of study include three-phase, single-phase and shaded-pole induction motors. The principles of Variable Frequency Drives (VFDs) and their control circuits are presented along with troubleshooting techniques. The use of VFDs in industry are covered with a focus on their applications in HVAC systems, Water Treatment Plants (WTPs) and Waste Water Treatment Plants (WWTPs)

**Learning Outcomes:**

Upon completion of this module the student will be able to:

- List the three classifications of single-phase motors.
- Explain the basic operating principle of the induction motor.
- Define synchronous speed and slip.
- Describe the difference between starting torque and breakdown torque.
- List three advantages of universal motors over induction motors.
- Define speed regulation.
- Describe the difference between pulse-width modulation, pulse-amplitude modulation and pulse width control.
- Explain the difference between a cycloconverter and an inverter.
- Describe the basic operation of a Variable Frequency Drive (VFD)
- List five applications for VFDs in industry

This module will build on previous topics by presenting an introduction to transducers used in both analog and digital applications. The module also covers temperature, pressure and flow transducers as well as other detection devices such as optical encoders and Hall-effect sensors. Capacitive, ultrasonic and thickness sensors are also presented using practical and theoretical examples of industrial applications of these devices.

**Learning Outcomes:**

Upon completion of this module the student will be able to:

- Differentiate between a thermocouple and a thermopile.
- Explain the advantages of using pyrometers for temperature measurement.
- Define the terms RTD and thermistor.
- Name two types of pressure transducers.
- Describe how load cells are used for flow measurement.
- Name three types of photoelectric devices.
- Briefly describe the components used in fibre optic systems.
- Define lasers and explain why they are used in industrial electronic controls.
- Explain the basic operating principle of an optical shaft encoder.

It is in this module that the student learns the principles of industrial control systems including open- and closed-loop control. Proportional, Integral and Derivative control are covered with an emphasis on practical application and design. An introduction to algorithms, flow charts and fuzzy logic is also presented in this module.

**Learning Outcomes:**

Upon completion of this module the student will be able to:

- Define the terms process, process variable and controlled variable.
- Name four applications for control systems.
- Explain the advantage of using block diagrams.
- Describe the relationship between the set point, error signal and measured value.
- Differentiate between open-loop control and closed-loop control.
- List the five basic components in a closed-loop control system.
- Name the four variables that are generally used to evaluate the performance of a closed-loop control system.
- Define dead time.
- Explain the basic operating principles of on off, proportional, integral, derivative and PID control.
- Describe the purpose of feedforward control in process systems.

This module introduces the student to the PN junction and i application in modern electronic circuits. Semiconductor diodes and configurations such as half wave and full wave rectifiers are presented using both theoretical and practical examples which are reinforced by laboratory experiments. Other diodes such as Zener, Varactor, and Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs) are also introduced in this module.

**Learning Outcomes:**

Upon completion of this module the student will be able to:

- Explain the atomic structure of semiconductors.
- Differentiate between P type and N type semiconductors.
- Describe how a PN junction is forward biased and reverse biased.
- Name the two leads of a semiconductor diode.
- Explain the purpose of diode ratings.
- Troubleshoot diodes and rectifier circuits.
- Discuss the basic operation of half wave and full-wave rectifiers.
- Describe the operating characteristics of zener diodes.
- Name two types of optoelectronic devices and describe their operation.

Bipolar Junction Transistors (BJTs) are covered in this module and their application in amplifier and switching circuits is also presented. This module also introduces Field Effects Transistors (FETs), and thyristors such as Silicon Controlled Rectifiers (SCRs) and Triacs. In addition the module also includes transistor troubleshooting problems and assignments as well as laboratory experiments for transistor circuits.

**Learning Outcomes:**

Upon completion of this module the student will be able to:

- Describe the basic operation of a transistor.
- Explain how transistors are biased.
- List three types of transistors.
- Explain the relationship between current, voltage and power in a transistor.
- Discuss the purpose of voltage divider biasing.
- Exam bipolar transistors.
- Differentiate between FETs and BJTs.
- Define transconductance.
- Exam FETs and thyristors.
- Explain how SCRs and triacs are used for phase angle control.
- Describe the basic principles of a relaxation oscillator.

This module covers common base, common collector and common-emitter amplifiers. In addition, the student is introduced to the effect of AC signals on amplifiers, FET amplifiers and multistage amplifiers. The student will also learn the differences between Class A, B, and C amplifiers and their applications in industry. Emphasis is placed on design, problem solving, and troubleshooting of amplifier circuits.

**Learning Outcomes:**

Upon completion of this module the student will be able to:

- List three main characteristics of linear amplifiers.
- Describe the effect of AC signals on an amplifier.
- Name three configurations for BJT amplifiers.
- Explain why coupling capacitors and bypass capacitors are used in amplifier circuits.
- List three configurations for FET amplifiers.
- Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of direct coupling, capacitor coupling and transformer coupling.
- Differentiate between class A, B and C amplifiers.
- Define crossover distortion.
- Troubleshoot amplifier circuits.

This module will provide the student with an overview of operational amplifiers and their characteristics. The student will learn basic op amp configurations such as inverting and non inverting amplifiers, as well as summing amplifiers and comparators. An introduction to analogue to digital converters is also presented in this module. Integrators, differentiators, oscillators and active filters are included emphasizing real world control applications.

**Learning Outcomes:**

Upon completion of this module the student will be able to:

- List three characteristics of an ideal op amp.
- Define slew rate.
- Describe the purpose of feedback in op amp circuits.
- Determine the voltage gain of inverting and n on inverting amplifiers.
- Explain the purpose of voltage followers.
- Name two applications of summing amplifiers.
- Describe the basic operation of a comparator.
- List two types of op amp voltage regulators.
- Determine resonant frequency of an oscillator.
- Name three types of multi vibrators.

This module covers a wide variety of topics relating to digital electronics including number systems, logic gates, flip flops and counters. Boolean algebra and DeMorgan's theorem is also introduced as well as troubleshooting and problem solving techniques for digital logic circuits. The logic gates presented in the module include AND, OR, NOR, NAND and inverters.

**Learning Outcomes:**

Upon completion of this module the student will be able to:

- Explain the binary number system.
- Convert binary numbers to decimal and decimal numbers to binary.
- Explain the hexadecimal number system.
- Convert hexadecimal numbers to binary and binary numbers to hexadecimal.
- Differentiate between natural binary and Binary Coded Decimal (BCD).
- Understand the ASCII code.
- Apply truth tables to troubleshooting digital circuits.
- List five logic gates.
- Describe the basic operation of an inverter.
- Explain the purpose of Boolean algebra.
- Understand logic gate combinations.
- Name eight Boolean theorems.
- Apply basic troubleshooting techniques to digital circuits.

This program includes the study of basic principles of programmable logic controllers (PLCs) and focuses on Allen-Bradley and AEG Modicon systems. PLC timers, counters and sequencers are presented with an emphasis on practical applications and safe operation of PLC systems. This module also covers data transfer, math functions and installation, maintenance and troubleshooting of PLCs.

**Learning Outcomes:**

Upon completion of this module the student will be able to:

- Define a programmable logic controller.
- Explain the purpose of the PLC scan function.
- Describe the basic function of I/O system.
- Define ladder logic.
- Name the two basic types of PLC counters.
- Describe the operating principles of a sequencer.
- Explain how data transfer is accomplished using a PLC.
- Name four PLC math functions.
- List six safety considerations for PLC systems.
- Describe the basic troubleshooting procedure for PLC systems.